The report offers a comparison of the EU’s energy relations with Norway and Russia. It begins by setting out the current geographical, legal, economic and political contexts of the two relationships. The EU’s deployment of its prime normative tool competition law is then examined in order to assess how efficient it has been in dealing with the Norwegian and Russian national champions, Statoil and Gazprom, respectively, and whether the treatment of the two has varied. The significance of the equal treatment angle seems to be key to an effective setting of normative standards. The conclusions highlight the possible paths of development of the so-called energy union and ask whether the EU can go beyond its current normative approach and whether it should consider asserting various other policy tools in its dealings with external gas suppliers.