The NPT was signed in 1968, entered into force in 1970, and is currently almost universal in its application. The treaty regulates the peaceful use of nuclear energy and prevents further proliferation of nuclear weapons, becoming the basis for safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, resolutions of the UN Security Council, national export control regimes and many other ad hoc international initiatives. The forthcoming 2015 Review Conference of the NPT will gather in a less favourable atmosphere than the previous one in 2010. The success or failure of the conference will be determined by three factors: 1) how Arab countries address the failure of efforts regarding the Middle East Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone; 2) perceptions of ongoing negotiations on the Iranian nuclear programme; 3) reaching consensus on the humanitarian initiative addressing the disarmament pillar of the NPT. Another factor, though having less impact on the conference, might also be Russian aggression in Crimea and Moscow’s breach of the Budapest Memorandum. Poland’s active and constructive participation in the NPT Review Conference might increase its chances of gaining wider support for its candidature to become a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2018–2019.