Common history largely influenced Polish-Ukrainian relations after Ukraine regained its independence in 1991. Apart from trying to solve political or economic problems, the two states tried much differently to deal with controversial issues, such as the Volyn massacre (1943–1944), “Operation Vistula” (1947), the relations between Poles and Ukrainians before World War II, and their attitudes towards the Nazi and communist regimes. Because of Ukraine's policies related to history, tensions in Polish-Ukrainian relations emerged from the outset, especially during the commemorations of Volyn in 2003 and again in 2013. However, a crisis in relations over their shared history came only in 2016. This report attempts to analyse Ukraine’s policies on historical matters related to Poland on three levels: legal, mass media, and education. In these segments of public life, on the one hand, the state’s efforts to shape a desired image of the past appears. On the other hand, is the image as viewed by the other. The Ukrainian legislation is presented in the wider perspective of the last 20 years. The parts about mass media and education level concern the current period, especially 2016–2017.
In recent years, calls have been getting louder for a more expansionary fiscal policy in the euro area. This could happen, for example, by placing an obligation on Member States with space in their budgets to increase spending. If this direction is indeed taken, it can spell gradual but important changes in the integration structure. The euro area, currently focused on enforcing fiscal discipline on the national level, could start turning to joint approaches in stabilisation policy, with the stage open for competences moving to the supranational level. The changes can also influence the pace of euro area expansion if they prove alluring for non-members to ramp up their accession effort. The dynamics of these processes will be contingent mainly on Member State economic preferences. The present report looks into the perspectives on this of Germany and France, whose positions are key for the future of the euro area, and of Poland, one of the weightiest non-members of the monetary union and thus far determined to postpone the decision to join.