The European Parliament has approved the European Commission’s proposal to backload allowances in the EU’s Emission Trading System. The protracted debate is still unfinished, though, as the issue now passes to the Council. No matter how controversial backloading is, it will have only a short-term, one-off impact on the system. The discussion on structural reforms, though, has already commenced. Major changes are needed, but due to vested and divergent interests, reaching a compromise by 2020 will be very difficult. Poland should advocate solutions that take into account the economic and energy diversity of the Member States and link the debate to the discussion of a 2030 framework for EU energy and climate policy.