What is the effect of European integration on regions and their interests? Does the multi-level structure of the European Union empower or dis-empower regional actors? How does it affect their goals and strategies? With the startling vote by the United Kingdom to leave the European Union – “Brexit” – these academic questions take on real world implications for Scotland. This book focuses on one of Europe’s most fascinating regions – the Basque Country – and its political, economic, and cultural evolution within the structures of the European Union.